Memorizing Inputs Tools and Outputs.

Are you overwhelmed while memorizing ITTO ? Wondering what to remember and what not ?.

You are in the right place. This article will help you with PMP ITTO (Inputs , Tools and Techniques and Ouputs). There are few processes where you have to memorize, which we have listed below. For remaining a general understanding is enough. Check out the Tips and techniques below for each knowledge area. This will help you answer most PMP questions without having the need to memorize all ITTO.

  • Integration:
    • Tools and Techniques are same for all the processes, except Develop Project charter has “Project Selection Methods” and Monitoring and Control project work has “Earned value technique”.
    • Remember there is no Expert Judgement in Direct and Execute project Work.
  • Scope:
    • Scope Definition TT is APES ( Alternatives Identificaiton, Product Analysis, Expert Judgement and Stakeholder Analysis )
    • Scope Verification has only one TT which is Inspection. The only other place where you will find Inspection as TT is in Quality Control process.
  • Time:
    • Activity Attributes is updated in all the process except in Activity Definition where it is created.
    • Memorize TT for Schedule Development
    • Activity Definition TT are PERTD ( Planning component, Expert Judgement, Rolling wave planning, Templates, Decomposition )
    • Schedule Control TT are PS PS PV ( Progress reporting Schedule Change control System, Performance Measurement,Schedule comparision Bar charts, PM software Variance analysis )
  • Cost:
    • Memorize TT For Cost Estimating. Remember that this overlaps with Activity Duration Estimate process.
    • Cost budgeting has Funding Limit Reconcilation as TT which produces output Project funding requirements
    • Cost Management plan is updated in Cost Estimating process

  • Quality:
    • Quality Planning creates 3 plans in output and 3 other outputs which start with Quality.
    • TT for Quality planning is ABCDC
    • QC has all the outputs of QA + 6 more outputs.
    • There are 10 TT for QC. Out of which there are 7 Tools for QC. Remember Inspection appears as TT here and only other place it appears is in Scope verification
  • HR – Constraints for HR Planning are C E O ( Collective bargaining agreements, Economic condition and Organizaiton Structure )
  • Risk
    • First 4 processes have only one output.
    • Risk Register is updated in all the processes after its created.
    • We recommed that you memorize ITTO for Risk Management process
  • Procurement:
    • This is a tough chapter and we recommend you keep your focus here and try and memorize as much as you can.

General Guidelines:
This is the best way to address ITTO. You should try to memorize it at artifact level, instead of process level. Meaning you should know everything that happens with Project Charter, WBS, Contract and so on. If you remember this then you will be able to answer many questions in exams.

  • Project Charter is input for only following:

Preliminary Scope Statement
Scope Planning
Scope Definition.

  • Resource Calendars – There may be questions in exam asking you about resource calendar. You should remember that it is
    • Input for Activity Duration Estimates, Schedule Development and Cost Budgeting
    • Activity Resrouce Estimates have Resource calendars as outputs.
  • Project Calendar: Talking about calendars, remember that project calendar is updated in Schedule Development.
  • Scope Statement – is input to all the planning processes after its created except
    • Activity Resources Estimating
    • HR Planning
    • Risk Resonse Planning
    • Plan Contracting

remember that Scope Statement is updated in Integrated Change control process, Create WBS and Scope control

  • WBS and WBS dictionary are inputs to
    • Scope control
    • Activity Definition
    • Cost Estimating
    • Cost Budgetting
    • Plan Purchases and Acquisitions

Remember that Scope Verification only has WBS Dictionary as input not WBS.

  • All Monitoring and Control Processes Except ( Integration Management & Manage Stakeholders ) will have following 4 outputs:
  • Requested Changes
  • Recommeded Corrective Actions
  • Project Management plan ( Updates) ( Except in Performance Reporting )
  • Organizational Process Assets ( Updates)

  • PAW – Scope control, Cost Control, Risk Monitoring and control and Contract Administration processes have PAW in Inputs 🙂 . PAW stands for Performance Reporting, Approved change requests and Work Performance Information. The other M & C Processes have two of PAW inputs except ( Integration Management & Manage Stakeholders )
    • You can remember this as SCRC has PAW

  • Recommended Preventive Actions: This occurs in only 4 processes – Monitor and Control Project work, Risk Monitoring and Control, Quality control and Manage project team.
  • Recommended Defect Repair is output of only two processes
    • M & C project work
    • Quality Control
  • Cost of Quality – Input to Quality Planning and TT For Cost Estimating.
  • Forecasting
    • Forecasts are outputs of M & C project work and Performance Reporting
    • Forecasted completion is output of Cost control and input to Performance Reporting
    • Forecasting is TT for Cost Control
  • Five outputs of Direct and Manage Project Execution are inputs to Quality Assurance namely
    • Implemented Change requests,
    • Implemented Corrective actions
    • Implemented Preventive actions
    • Implemented Defect Repair.
    • Work Performance Information.
  • Contract which is output of Select Selles process is input to Contract Administration and Cost budgeting

Memory Aids for PMP Exam

We believe the following is must to remember for PMP Exam. Hence it is listed seperately from Memorizing input , tools, and outputs since that is optional.

  1. The following are common tools and techniques for all the processes in the Project Integration Management knowledge area:
  • · Project Management Methodology
  • · Expert Judgment (except Direct and Manage Project Execution)
  • · PMIS
  1. After the Project management plan is developed, it is an input for all successive processes in the Project Integration Management knowledge area.
  1. Activity Attributes Updates is a common output for all the processes in the Project Time Management knowledge area except the first process where activity attributes are created.
  1. Requested Changes is a common output for all the processes in the Project Cost, Time, Quality & Scope Management knowledge area except the Activity Duration Estimating Process , Quality Planning and Scope Planning
  1. Tools and techniques used in Risk Identification:
    1. BIRDS (Information Gathering techniques)
    2. CSI (Diagramming techniques)

B I R D S:

  • Brainstorming
  • Interviewing
  • Root cause identification
  • Delphi technique
  • SWOT Analysis

C S I:

  • Cause and Effect Analysis
  • System or Process Flow charts
  • Influence Diagrams
  1. Tools and techniques used in Quantitative Risk Analysis:
    1. PIE (Data gathering and representation techniques)
    2. MEDS (Quantitative risk analysis and modeling)

P I E:

Probability Distributions
Expert Judgement


Modeling and Simulation (Eg Monte Carlo Analysis)
EMV Analysis
Decision tree analysis
Sensitivity Analysis (Eg. Tornardo Diagram)

  1. Tools and techniques used in Risk Response Planning:

a. Strategies for Negative Risks / Threats:


  • Avoid
  • Transfer
  • Mitigate

b. Strategies for Positive Risks / Threats:


  • Share
  • Enhance
  • Exploit
  1. Tools and techniques used in Scope Definition:


  • Alternatives Identification
  • Product Analysis
  • Expert Judgement
  • Stakeholder Analysis
  1. There is only one Tool & Technique for Risk Management Planning: Planning meetings and analysis.
  1. When the seller selection is based on PRICE, its often called a tender / Bid / Quotation. When the seller selection is based on technical skills / approach, its called a proposal.
  1. Recommended Preventive action is used to bring the project into compliance with the project plan. Recommended corrective action is anything that needs to be done to bring the seller in compliance with the terms of the contract.
  1. Prevention is keeping errors out of the process. Inspection is keeping errors out of the hands of the customer.
  1. Attribute sampling is whether the result conforms or not. In Variables sampling, the result is rated on a continuous scale that measures the degree of conformity.
  1. Common causes (a.k.a random causes) are normal process variations. Special causes are unusual events.
  1. The result is acceptable if it falls within the range specified by the tolerance control limits. The process is in control if it falls within the control limits.
  1. Seven basic tools of quality: CCFRHPS

Take a Cat CatFish Runs on Horse Pony Stallion

Cause and Effect Diagrams.

Control Charts.

Flow charting

Run Chart


Pareto Chart

Scatter Diagram

  1. Constraints for human resource planning:


  • Collective bargaining agreements
  • Economic conditions
  • Organizational Structure
  1. Project Statement of Work describes:


  • Business Needed
  • Product Scope Description
  • Strategic Plan

Point of Total Assumption

The point of total assumption (PTA) is a price determined by a fixed price plus incentive fee contract (FPIF) above which the seller bears all the loss of a cost overrun. It is also known as the “most pessimistic cost” because it represents the highest point beyond which costs are not expected to rise, given reasonable issues. If costs go beyond the PTA, they are assumed to be due to mis-management rather than a worst-case set of difficulties. The seller bears all of the cost risk at PTA and beyond. In addition, once the costs on an FPIF contract reach PTA, the maximum amount the buyer will pay is the ceiling price.

Any FPIF contract specifies a target cost, a target profit, a target price, a ceiling price, and one or more share ratios. The PTA is the difference between the ceiling and target prices, divided by the buyer’s portion of the share ratio for that price range, plus the target cost.

PTA = ((Ceiling Price – Target Price)/buyer’s Share Ratio) + Target Cost


Target Cost: 60,000

Target profit: 6000

Target Price: 63,000

Celing Price: 65,000

Share Ratio: 70% Buyer and 30% seller

PTA = (( 65000 – 63000 ) / 0.7 ) + 60000 = 62857



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